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What does LYPO Spheric Vitamin C do?

Fact / Summary:

Vitabetter Liposomal Vitamin C needs less of the Vitamin because Liposomes deliver the Vitamin's more efficiently than normal Vitamins. Normal Vitamins required more of the Vitamin because it gets lost on the way when delivering the Vitamin. Bioavailability is the major reason why Liposomal Vitamin C is better.

Vitamin C is not stored well in our bodies, we use it constantly and yet many people's intake is considerably less than it should be. Vitamin C is the most proven, well documented and powerful ant oxidizing, immune-boosting, anti-pathogenic, anti-aging, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-toxin, nutrient known to man. We must obtain 100% of this nutrient through our diet and supplements, yet interestingly, research is now showing that conventional ways of obtaining vitamin C may not be enough for modern-day living!

There are many types of Vitamin C supplements available, but Lypo-Spheric Vitamin C is the first choice of people who really understand bioavailability and the importance of high-dose vitamin C. So what sets Lypo-Spheric Vitamin C apart from other forms of vitamin C that we may be taking to help boost our health? Firstly, all other forms of vitamin C come up against an absorption barrier that vastly limits the level of vitamin C that can enter the bloodstream. The large amount of vitamin C that doesn’t get absorbed, gets flushed. However, Lypo-Spheric Vitamin C effectively slips across the intestinal wall and into the blood. This type of Vitamin C also doesn’t get broken down until it actually reaches the part of the body that needs it most. That's because it is able to completely bypass the very restrictive nutrient transport system that radically limits the bioavailability of allnon-liposome encapsulated forms of vitamin C.

Recent clinical trials suggest that Lypo-Spheric Vitamin C is able to produce serum levels of vitamin C nearly double those thought theoretically possible with any oral form of vitamin C. Traditional forms of Vitamin C severely limit the amount you can take orally. If you take more than 1 or 2 grams of traditional Vitamin C, the ascorbic acid in the intestines will cause gastric distress including gas, cramps, and diarrhea. Much of the Vitamin C will be eliminated in loose stool and in the urine. A very small percentage (as little as 12%) of ordinary Vitamin C actually gets absorbed into the bloodstream. The human digestive system was never designed to digest large doses of Vitamin C in any form orally!

However, Lypo-Spheric Vitamin C allows you to take Vitamin C orally, bypass the digestive system and deliver it fresh and intact into the bloodstream. Utilizing Liposomal Encapsulation Technology” (LET), it radically changes the way Vitamin C is delivered to the bloodstream. There is almost no system, organ, gland or cell in your body which does not potentially derive great benefit from an optimal supply of Vitamin C.  If dietary Vitamin C intake is inadequate, all may be greatly strengthened by supplementation with a non-degraded Vitamin C such as Lypo-Spheric Vitamin C.

What is the best way to take vitamin C?

Grapefruit is one of the best fruit sources of vitamin C, with about 88 milligrams of the good stuff. And, because this important vitamin is water soluble, it is important to get it from food (or drink) daily.  Water soluble vitamins don't stick around very long in our bodies. The body absorbs what it needs at the time, and the rest is washed away in your urine. (Fat soluble vitamins last much longer.) 

Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant, which means it could help fight the free radical damage in your body. This vitamin is also associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and cataracts, according to a 1999 study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

A study this year in the same journal found that vitamin C might also help reduce blood pressure, in addition to the myriad of other health benefits. It's important to note that this study didn't control for other factors, such as blood pressure medication, so more research must be done. Still, it probably wouldn't hurt to get a little more vitamin C in your diet.

Here are some tips for getting the most vitamin C out of your daily diet:

  • Eat your fruits and veggiesraw whenever possible. When you cook them, you strip the food of some of its vital nutrients. Cooking especially affects water soluble vitamins, such as vitamin C.
  • Keep a bowl of vitamin-C rich fruit in the house for snaking. A grapefruit for breakfast is not a bad idea. You may also consider eating more oranges, mangos and kiwifruit.
  • Have a light lunch with a side of crudité. Raw broccoli and red peppers are extremely high in this powerful antioxidant.
  • Eat more fermented vegetables. One serving of kimchi (a traditional Korean recipe made of fermented cabbage) provides about half of your recommended daily value of vitamin C. Sauerkraut is also a good option; just be sure to buy it in the refrigerated section. In addition to vitamin C and other vitamins, kimchi and sauerkraut also contain gut-strengthening probiotics. 

Is liposomal vitamin C better than regular vitamin C?

The absorption of liposomal vitamin C is significantly higher than that of a standard vitamin C supplement. Benefits of liposomal vitamin C include increased bioavailability, cardiovascular support, skin health, improved collagen production, and reduced oxidative stress throughout the body. True liposomal or pro-liposomal supplements are non-toxic and can greatly increase your body’s ability to absorb the nutrients they incorporate. Because of extensive equipment and technology needed to manufacture them, liposomal supplements tend to be more expensive than conventional vitamin C but they can deliver superior absorption. However there is great variability between products and a little bit of homework and knowledge helps.

A "liposome" is a spherical structure made out of a shell formed by phospholipids and surrounded by water.  At the center of a “liposome” is usually a main ingredient, like vitamin C or glutathione, also suspended in water.

“Liposomal” on the other hand does not mean “liposome” — these terms are not one and the same even though they do sound similar. The term liposomal is (sometimes) loosely used to only mean “containing fat”. So products containing just fat (lipid) and vitamin C mixed together can sometimes be called "liposomal".

The usual lipid that forms liposomes is a "phospholipid". Phosphatidylcholine is the most abundant phospholipid and is the main building block of cell walls as well as the main constituent of the outer shell of liposomes. However the lipid form that some supplements use is not a phospholipid, and can be simply be in the form of a fatty acid which is not as effective.

Products using fatty acids may be labeled “liposomal” vitamin C but might never result in formed liposomes, even when exposed to water because the vitamin C is simply covalently bound to a fatty acid.

A perfect example of a product using a fatty acid bound to vitamin C is an ester of vitamin C . Usually labeled as lipid "soluble" vitamin C, esters like ascorbyl palmitate are marketed as a “liposomal” but will never result in forming a "liposome".

Ascorbyl palmitate is not found in nature. It is synthetically generated when palmitate (an ester) is chemically bound to vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Ascorbyl palmitate is an antioxidant which is often used to extend the shelf life of certain foods, medications, and cosmetics.

Ester forms of vitamin C, like ascorbyl palmitate, are easily digested after oral ingestion by enzymes in the small intestine which cleave the bond immediately releasing just plain vitamin C (ascorbic acid molecule) and the ester, in this case palmitate, before any absorption can take place. When this bond gets cleaved,  plain vitamin C is formed from the ester and  no improved absorption occurs when compared to a standard vitamin C supplement. [1,2]. Its bioavailability is essentially identical to ascorbic acid alone [3].

The esters used may even have a negative impact, depending on the ingredient itself. Unlike ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate may actually be toxic to skin cells damaged by UV exposure according to one study [4]. Ascorbyl oleate is very similar to the ascorbyl palmitate compound, binding oleate to ascorbic acid. Very little is known about cetyl ascorbate, but it is yet another  form of esterified vitamin C.

  • How to Choose the Best Liposomal Vitamin C Supplement?

Choose a formed liposomal or a well made pro-liposomal supplement that contains vitamin C and a phospholipids like phosphatidylcholine. Avoid vitamin C esters "lipid soluble" vitamin C like include ascorbyl palmitate, ascorbyl oleate, or cetyl ascorbate as they may offer little if any advantage over regular vitamin C

Look for the source of vitamin C. While most brand use Chinese vitamin C, Quali-C is a brand of vitamin C manufactured in Scotland using non-GMO European sourced corn

Ensure the supplement is non-GMO and soy-, gluten-, and dairy free.

Summary: These “lipid-soluble” forms of vitamin C (ascorbyl palmitate, alscorbyl oleate and cetyl ascorbate, are rapidly digested before any absorption takes place, releasing plain vitamin C in your small intestine. Unfortunately, these results in unassuming customers paying top dollar for a product that is not much different than a standard vitamin C capsule or powder but has the term "liposomal" attached to it. Because these forms are inexpensive to make they typically have lower prices, yet they tout very high doses per serving such as 1200-1800 mg of vitamin C. So, to answer the question: Liposomal vitamin C is not a “hoax”, but not all products labeled liposomal vitamin C truly offer the same benefits. 

Is liposomal vitamin C easier on the stomach?

Yes, taking high doses of traditional vitamin C – pills, powders, and capsules – can upset your stomach and then some…           

             Here’s why:

Most traditional vitamin C supplements contain straight ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid is recognized as the primary force behind the power of vitamin C, but

it is an acid.  A moderate amount of acid in the gastric system helps to digest food and kill bacteria, but too much acid leads to heartburn, bloating, belching, and flatulence. High quality vitamin C supplements use gentler, less-acidic types of vitamin C to help prevent this gastric upset. These supplements typically include sodium ascorbate, ascorbic acid with bioflavonoids, ascorbyl palmitate, calcium ascorbate, or mineral forms of ascorbate.

The type of vitamin C you take, however, is only one part of the issue. Because no matter what type of vitamin C you ingest, it’s primarily absorbed through an active transport system (unless it’s encapsulated in liposomes, but we’ll get to that later). Active transport of vitamin C relies on sodium-dependent vitamin C co-transporters (SVCTs) to carry each vitamin C molecule through special doorways into the bloodstream, cell or tissue. SVCTs can only carry one molecule of vitamin C through one door at a time.

This system works efficiently for a healthy person taking small doses of vitamin C, but when you take high doses of vitamin C, the absorption is severely restricted by the number of SVCTs and the number of open doors. If there aren’t enough SVCTs to carry all of the vitamin C into the blood, or all of the doors are closed, the vitamin C that was not absorbed is forced to exit the body.

This forced exit occurs because the most common forms of vitamin C are water soluble – meaning the vitamin C dissolves in water, and cannot be stored by the body for later use.  So when a large dose of water soluble vitamin C is taken and there are not enough SVCTs or open doors, all of the unabsorbed vitamin C is sent to the colon. Water is then drawn into the colon in order to dilute and excrete the vitamin C. Then… straight to the bathroom.

Unless you are looking for a good cleanse, there are two ways to prevent these unpleasant experiences and prevent stomach upset when taking high doses of vitamin C:

  • Take single doses of <500 mg of sodium ascorbate, several times a day.  Sodium ascorbate is recommended most by vitamin C experts, and it is commonly used in high dose intravenous (IV) infusions [5].
  • Take vitamin C encapsulated in liposomes. Liposomes are tiny spheres that form a protective membrane around the vitamin C [6]. Liposomal vitamin Ccan bypass absorption barriers and maximize absorption into the bloodstream and cells.

What form of vitamin C is best?

A "liposome" is a spherical structure made out of a shell formed by phospholipids and surrounded by water.  At the center of a “liposome” is usually a main ingredient, like vitamin C or glutathione, also suspended in water. “Liposomal” on the other hand does not mean “liposome” — these terms are not one and the same even though they do sound similar. The term liposomal is (sometimes) loosely used to only mean “containing fat”. So products containing just fat (lipid) and vitamin C mixed together can sometimes be called "liposomal". 

The usual lipid that forms liposomes is a "phospholipid". Phosphatidylcholine is the most abundant phospholipid and is the main building block of cell walls as well as the main constituent of the outer shell of liposomes. However the lipid form that some supplements use is not a phospholipid, and can be simply be in the form of a fatty acid which is not as effective. 

The absorption of liposomal vitamin C is significantly higher than that of a standard vitamin C supplement. Benefits of liposomal vitamin C include increased bioavailability, cardiovascular support, skin health, improved collagen production, and reduced oxidative stress throughout the body. 

Why you should ONLY take Liposomal Vitmain C

Taking supplements in high doses may lead to kidney stones. Total and supplemental vitamin C intake is associated with a significantly elevated risk of kidney stones in men, according to a new study published online ahead of print in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases. The average man needs 90 milligrams (mg) of vitamin C a day; the average woman 75 mg. The vitamin is important for making and repairing connective tissue, skin, and bones. It also helps the body absorb iron. Good food sources include red peppers, papaya, and citrus fruits. Vitamin C supplements can deliver 10 times or more of the daily requirement. Liposomal Vitmain C is the most efficient way to delivery Vitamin C to your Body. With Vitabetter Liposomal Vitamin C we only need a lose does to deliver while most Vitamin C needs more because it gets lost in the delivery cycle.

In part because of the tireless but misguided efforts of Nobel laureate Linus Pauling and others, many people believe that extra vitamin C can prevent colds, supercharge the immune system, detoxify the body, protect the heart, fight cancer, and more. To date, though, the evidence doesn’t support claims that extra vitamin C is helpful. Despite that, vitamin C represents the biggest single category of vitamin and mineral sales; Americans bought more than $200 million worth of it last year.

What is Lypo-Spheric products? Is it different than liposomal vitamin C ?

Lypo Spheric vitamin C is no ordinary supplement. It delivers more vitamin C to where it’s needed most because of its unique structure. Lypo-spheric technology is arguably superior for the delivery of nutrients. Why is liposomal vitamin C better? Check out the reasons below.

  • Better absorption

Regular vitamin C does have a disadvantage making vitamin C supplementation different from other nutrients. Much of the vitamin C you take orally, either from food or supplements, isn’t absorbed by the gut. Smaller amounts are absorbed better, e.g. if you took 100 mg, you’d absorb about 98 mg. There’s a larger “fractional absorption” amount with smaller doses. The fractional absorption amount decreases though with larger doses. Only about 1000-1250 mg of vitamin C would be absorbed with a single 2000 mg dose. True, more total vitamin C is absorbed but it’s less efficient. To put this in perspective, a single 12,000 mg dose would only result in about 16%, or 1920 mg, of it being absorbed.

Vitamin C must be transported through the gut wall using transporters. There are only so many transporters available and this action requires energy. Also, there only so much time before vitamin C moves along on its merry way down your digestive tract. Once vitamin C has moved on, it’s lost its chance to be absorbed. As you can see, there are limitations to the absorption of traditional vitamin C. Also, regular vitamin C is quickly absorbed, distributed throughout the circulation and then eventually filtered, and excreted by the kidneys. Once taken, blood levels peak about 2 to 4 hours afterward and then drift back down to pre-supplementation (baseline) levels about 6-8 hours after that. If you want more from your regular vitamin C, several doses need to be taken throughout the day. Needless to say, this can make oral dosing of vitamin C somewhat burdensome. Once in your bloodstream, a portion of the vitamin C will diffuse or be actively transported from the blood into the various cells of your body such as your muscles, heart, kidneys, liver, digestive tract, your brain, eyes, etc.

It does offer antioxidant protection but the amount of vitamin C that gets into your cells is much less than the amount that’s in the bloodstream (outside your cells). Much of the vitamin C that doesn’t get absorbed by your cells will be excreted in your urine. This is why liposomes are better and lypospheric vitamin C offers greater benefits. Being wrapped in essential phospholipids, vitamin C is absorbed like dietary fats. It is taken up by the lymphatic system with an estimated 98% efficiency. Once there, it moves from the lymphatic system into your bloodstream. Liposomes deliver more vitamin C into the circulation compared to traditional vitamin C supplements. The circulating vitamin C-rich liposomes deliver more vitamin C to your tissues and organs. The liposomes bind to the cell membranes where they release vitamin C into your cells, effectively raising INTRA-cellular levels.

A recent clinical trial by world-renowned vitamin C expert and pharmacologist, Steve Hickey, Ph.D., showed that liposomal vitamin C was able to produce serum levels of vitamin C nearly double those thought theoretically possible with any oral form of the vitamin. This astounding level of bioavailability not only dramatically increases the amount of vitamin C in the blood, but recent thermographic microscopy provides visible evidence that it also aids its entry into individual cells. Even IV vitamin C has its limits in terms of raising intracellular levels of vitamin C because most of the vitamin C is still in the blood. Some of it will find its way into the cells, but not much. Studies estimate that only about 20% of the vitamin C from IV delivery gets in despite very high concentrations in the serum. Liposomal C is different. Anecdotally, vitamin C researcher Thomas Levy has found through years of clinical experience that a much smaller oral dose of lypo spheric vitamin C (5 to 10 grams) often results in a similar clinical response as a much larger dose of vitamin C given intravenously (25 to 100 grams).

  • Better Bioavailability of liposomal vitamin C

Liposome encapsulation overcomes all the bioavailability and cellular uptake restrictions. Liposomes do not rely on a specialized carrier transport system. Instead, due to their size and composition, they are able to be passively absorbed through the intestinal wall and through cellular membranes. As a result, liposome encapsulated nutrients (like lypo spheric vitamin C and liposomal glutathionelypo spheric carnitine, and lypo spheric alpha lipoic acid) provide a greatly enhanced bioavailability (delivery into the bloodstream) and greatly improved delivery into individual cells.

This better absorption has the advantage of the vitamin C entering the lymphatic system first, giving up a lot of its vitamin C to your white blood cells of the immune system (such as the macrophages and phagocytes that love to concentrate vitamin C within their structures to fight infections and cancer). The vitamin C filled liposomes then enter the bloodstream but unlike regular ascorbic acid that is filtered by the kidneys, when liposomal vitamin C is cleared from the blood it is taken up by various cells, tissues, and organs throughout the body. It makes its way into your cells and is not lost in your urine.  PRO TIP: One form of vitamin C doesn’t, nor shouldn’t, replace the other. Regular vitamin C increases blood levels nicely while lypospheric is better at increasing the vitamin C within your cells. It’s best to have both forms to ensure maximum benefits!

A 2016 study in 11 human subjects found that vitamin C encapsulated in liposomes increased vitamin C levels in the blood by substantially  compared to an un-encapsulated (non-liposomal) supplement at the same dose (4 grams) [7]. 

  • Reproduces our hypothesized lost ability to synthesize our own vitamin C

Goats, dogs, cats, elephants, pigs, horses, and other mammals make their own vitamin C [in their livers and/or kidneys] and they make it in HUGE amounts. Much more on a per kg of body weight basis than what’s recommended for human health. Much, much more than the 90 mg or so per day recommended for adult humans. But researchers say it wasn’t always like that. Our earlier ancestors used to make their own vitamin C. We’re missing the enzyme L-gulonolactone oxidase (GLO) needed to do this for ourselves.

You and I have the gene in our DNA that’s responsible to make the GLO enzyme [and by extension vitamin C], but it’s mutated. Because of this, our liver cells can’t ‘read’ the gene and are unable to finish the final step of making vitamin C from glucose. Not only do we have all the other genes to make vitamin C, all of those genes are active in us except for the last one. 

 

Note: In the diagram above, you and I (mammals) can do everything needed, up to the last step:  L-GulL to L-ascorbate a.k.a. “vitamin C”.

Is 1000mg Vitamin C Safe?

Generally, 1000-2000 mg/day should afford you the general health benefits of vitamin C:

  • Immunity
  • Brain health
  • Collagen production
  • Cardiovascular protection
  • Energy production
  • Increased antioxidant presence 

For specific health issues, a higher dose may be warranted. The Linus Pauling Center recommends a dose of 2,000 milligrams per day, which is generally very safe and can account for the poorer absorption capacity in some individuals. People who may benefit most from this high dose include the elderly and smokers, who also have an increased need for vitamin C. 4,000 milligrams of liposomal vitamin C has been used to protect against the oxidative damage that can happen post-heart attack or stroke due to reperfusion.

Is LYPO Spheric Vitamin C better?

Lypo Spheric vitamin C is no ordinary supplement. It delivers more vitamin C to where it’s needed most because of its unique structure. Lypo-spheric technology is arguably superior for the delivery of nutrients. 

  • Bioavailability

The best-understood advantage is that liposomal vitamin C has a much higher bioavailability than standard vitamin C. Bioavailable simply means how well vitamin C absorbs into your system. As we already mentioned liposomal vitamin C supplement allows your small intestine to absorb more of the nutrient than a standard vitamin C supplement. 

  • Heart and brain health

Vitamin C intake (via diet or supplements) may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease by about 25%, according to a 2004 analysis published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Any form of vitamin C supplement improves endothelial function, as well as ejection fraction. Endothelial function involves the contraction and relaxation of blood vessels, enzymatic release to manage blood clotting, immunity, and platelet adhesion. Ejection fraction defines “the percentage of blood that is pumped (or ejected) out of the ventricles” when the heart contracts on every beat. Together, these results suggest that vitamin C may play an important part in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and the improvement of heart health. 

  • Cancer

Intravenous vitamin C can be used in high doses to fight cancer in tandem with traditional chemotherapy. It may not eradicate cancer on its own, but it can definitely improve the quality of life, increasing energy and mood for many cancer patients.

  • Collagen production

Collagen is the most abundant protein in our bodies, however our own natural collagen production slows around the age of 25. Vitamin C is a cofactor in the enzymes that produce collagen, meaning it is necessary to the function and health of your bones, blood vessels, and joints where collagen abounds. When vitamin C levels run low, such as in times of stress, infection, chronic illness (i.e. diabetes, autoimmune illness which generate high levels of free radicals and oxidative stress), less of it is available for collagen production. Since collagen is the structural protein that holds us together, this can manifest as weaker joints, tendons, blood vessels and connective tissue. More superficially, weaker collagen can manifest as sagging skin with more wrinkles.

  • Oxidative stress

In general, some level of oxidative stress occurs within every living thing. As a 2006 review puts it: “There is increasing evidence connecting oxidative stress with a variety of pathological conditions including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, chronic inflammatory disease, post-ischaemic organ injury, diabetes mellitus, xenobiotic/drug toxicity, and rheumatoid arthritis.”

Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant and is found in generous quantities within the human body.

Can kids take LYPO Spheric Vitamin C?

Ideally to be taken 15 minutes before a meal, for children the dose can be halved Increase water consumption while taking the treatment dose of Lypo-spheric Vitamin C. Consumption of around 1- 1 ½ litres of water a day for an adult, less for children is sufficient.

Can you take too much liposomal vitamin C?

The National Institute of Health advises men and women to never take more than 2,000 milligrams of vitamin C dietary supplement each day. For specific health issues, a higher dose may be warranted. The Linus Pauling Center recommends a dose of 2,000 milligrams per day, which is generally very safe and can account for the poorer absorption capacity in some individuals. People who may benefit most from this high dose include the elderly and smokers, who also have an increased need for vitamin C. 4,000 milligrams of liposomal vitamin C has been used to protect against the oxidative damage that can happen post-heart attack or stroke due to reperfusion.

Is liposomal vitamin C worth it?

There has been a lot of scrutiny of liposomal vitamin C. One of the most frequently asked questions about liposomal supplements is: Is liposomal vitamin C a "hoax"? True liposomal or pro-liposomal supplements are non-toxic and can greatly increase your body’s ability to absorb the nutrients they incorporate. Because of extensive equipment and technology needed to manufacture them, liposomal supplements tend to be more expensive than conventional vitamin C but they can deliver superior absorption. However there is great variability between products and a little bit of homework and knowledge helps.

These “lipid-soluble” forms of vitamin C (ascorbyl palmitate, alscorbyl oleate and cetyl ascorbate, are rapidly digested before any absorption takes place, releasing plain vitamin C in your small intestine. Unfortunately, this results in unassuming customers paying top dollar for a product that is not much different than a standard vitamin C capsule or powder but has the term "liposomal" attached to it. Because these forms are inexpensive to make they typically have lower prices, yet they tout very high doses per serving such as 1200-1800 mg of vitamin C. So, to answer the question: Liposomal vitamin C is not a “hoax”, but not all products labeled liposomal vitamin C truly offer the same benefits.

References:

  1. Weil: Time for a change? https://www.drweil.com/vitamins-supplements-herbs/vitamins/vitamin-c-time-for-a-change/
  2. The Linus Pauling Institute: The Bioavailability of Different Forms of Vitamin C: https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/vitamin-C/supplemental-forms
  3. De Ritter, E., Cohen, N., & Rubin, S. H. (1951). Physiological availability of dehydro-L-ascorbic acid and palmitoyl-L-ascorbic acid. Science, 113 (2944), 628-631. Abstract: https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19511402702
  4. Cadeau, C., Fournier, A., Mesrine, S., Clavel-Chapelon, F., Fagherazzi, G., & Boutron-Ruault, M.C. (2016). Vitamin C supplement intake and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: interaction with dietary vitamin C. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 104 (1), 228-234. Abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27194303
  5. Li, Y. and Schellhorn, E. 2007. New developments and novel therapeutic perspectives for vitamin C. Journal of Nutrition. 137: 2171-2184
  6. Hickey S., Roberts H, Miller N, (2008), “Pharmacokinetics of oral vitamin C” Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine July 31.
  7. Davis, J. L., Paris, H. L., Beals, J. W., Binns, S. E., Giordano, G. R., Scalzo, R. L., ... & Bell, C. (2016). Liposomal-encapsulated ascorbic acid: Influence on vitamin C bioavailability and capacity to protect against ischemia–reperfusion injury. Nutrition and metabolic insights , 9 , NMI-S39764. Full text: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4915787/
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